What Diseases Cause Iliac Fossa Effusion, and How Can It Be Treated?

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Iliac Fossa Effusion: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments

Iliac fossa effusion can be caused by abscesses formed due to infection or tuberculous diseases. Treatments include oral administration of analgesics such as diclofenac sodium, physical therapy methods like ultrashort wave, and surgical drainage. The effusion can be triggered by various factors such as traumatic injuries, articular damage, osteoproliferation, collapse of osteophytes, degenerative cartilage changes, bone necrosis, arthritis, tuberculous arthritis, rheumatic diseases, and other cellular biological stimuli. These factors can lead to poor blood circulation in the hip joint, resulting in aseptic inflammation. The synovial membrane responds to inflammatory stimuli by secreting exudates, which can cause pain. Iliac fossa effusion is mainly manifested as tenderness in the inguinal region, limited hip flexion and adduction, slightly external rotation of the lower limb, delayed foot drop, more pronounced when walking quickly, pelvic tilt when lying flat, unequal leg lengths with the affected side being 0.5 to 2cm longer than the healthy side, and increased pain when actively or passively adducting and externally rotating the hip joint. Ultrasonography can be used to detect hematomas and synovial lesions in the hip joint cavity. X-ray examination of hip synovitis typically shows bulging of the hip joint capsule shadow, and when joint effusion is severe, the femoral head may be displaced laterally and the joint space widened. MRI may reveal small amounts of long T1 and long T2 hematomas in the hip joint space. After the appearance of iliac fossa effusion, patients can take medications such as ibuprofen and diclofenac sodium orally for analgesia and anti-infection. Physical therapy methods like tui na (Chinese medical massage), infrared radiation, and ultrashort wave can also be used for relief. The specific treatment plan should be determined based on the amount of effusion observed through ultrasonography, and surgical drainage may be considered if necessary.